Solar Car - Universidad Simon Bolivar

University: Universidad Simon Bolivar
Team Members: Guillermo Villegas, Juan Carlos Romero, Carlos Osorio 

TI Parts Used:

  • ADS7955
  • DCP022412
  • SN74LV4051A
  • LM5116
  • TL1963A-33
  • ADS7828E
  • UCC37324
  • PTMA401120
  • ISO7220A
  • ISO124
  • DCP021212
  • REF5025A
  • REF3125A
  • LM94022
  • LM4040
  • BQ76PL536T
  • MSP430F5438A
  • LM5116
  • CSD87353
  • CSD17522
  • CSD25401
  • ADS7955
  • OPA4350
  • PCA9543
  • MSP430BT5190
  • TXS0108
  • TMP423A

Project Description

MECHANICAL front Suspension

It was designed from the parameters set by the book ¨ The Winning Solar Car ¨ Douglas R. Carroll later be optimized with the help of a specialized suspension systems for finding the suitable geometry. This system underwent several changes since it was first conceived as a simple two-dimensional drawing, especially the part of the buffer. For purposes of aerodynamics chose to use the pusher bar system and swings as being outside the body of the vehicle are to produce form drag losses. For this, the complete construction of the suspension rods, and rocker profiles were prepared aircraft wing cover and increase aerodynamic performance. Both suspension arms as the pusher bar will use the same bars an inch stainless steel used in the chassis. The rod-ends Aurora XA brands were selected from the vehicle longitudinal loads and axial center thereof and at an angle to the arms that they can attain. For the above reasons it was concluded that placing a ball-joint at the end of lower wishbone was more appropriate.

The pusher rods and rocker arms were made based on the thesis of one of the faculty advisors of the group which consists of the design of a shock for a Formula SAE vehicle from the Universidad Simón Bolívar. Later this was optimized in the same way that the front suspension to ensure that the vertical movement of the wheels have a certain relationship with the shock absorber assembly compression spring.

Direction

The steering system consists of an endless rack that moves transverse to the vehicle. The first designs took this system behind the front axle, but later for reasons of space we have to move to the front of it. After an iterative process geometry was achieved that met the parameters of acceptable losses and taxiways to bear in mind that the front suspension is a very intertwined and any changes made in the direction shall take effect on the behavior of the front suspension.

Rear Suspension

For the rear suspension arms and rectangular profiles were chosen that the forces they support are mostly normal to the ground. Thus, the above profiles have greater inertia and with durable material that will undergo deformation due to loads are very small.

Chassis

The chassis consists of a structure which uses stainless steel tubes 1in, 0.5in 0.75in. The arrangement of the tubes is suitable for the suspension points, the support of the battery box and the pilot position according to the rules. It also features a triangle to the entry and exit of the pilot, and where they will set the pedal and steering wheel. They develop various stress analysis to confirm that the structure will support the loads which will be submitted. Finally analyzed to find the most suitable place for the placement of the eyelets for towing.

Fairing

The fairing was designed on the basis of arrest reduce the effects of air drag. For this elliptical profiles were used, which were adapted to the shape of the chassis, reducing the frontal area of the body. It also includes a windbreaker on three wheels as these were outside the main structure of the body. Subsequently underwent CosmoWorks software simulations.

The body is under construction in the coming weeks sent the photos of construction.

Porta-Mass

The design is based on the configuration of the suspension, specifically the upper and lower wishbone. These are located at the top and bottom of the carrier masses, being the axis of rotation in the middle East. The address bar is also determined by the suspension.

The shaft bearing was calculated theoretically should have a diameter greater than 20mm in its entirety to support the loads to which it is subject. It was designed according to adapt to the bearings, the apple and the position of the brake disc.

The bearing cage is a structure designed to house two bearings, one larger than the other, to withstand the loads generated on this piece. It is designed so that the bearing shaft bearings are fixed at the best possible way. The bearings used have an inner diameter of 20mm and 25mm.

The block is designed to accommodate a bicycle wheel 20 inches, has a tapered fit to the shaft bearings. It also has the nuts to the disc brake adjusted to it. This piece was performed a study of stress analysis in which I take as a minimum safety factor of 1.5.

The analysis resulted in a safety factor of 1.58, therefore meets the theoretical requirements. Also possible is the greatest deformation well below the elastic limit of the material.

Brakes

The braking system to bring the solar car will consist of a dual system, which one is the system to be used in normal conditions and the other function as the hand brake of the vehicle. Depending on the configuration of the position of the vehicle's center of mass, length of axes, and the weight of the whole vehicle can be calculated braking force needed.

The braking system of vehicle disc brakes for bicycles, which go a caliper on each wheel of the vehicle. For the second brake system used a mechanical brake caliper with an additional rear wheel. The two front brakes will have to bear more than 70% of the weight when they are powered, so these will be operated with much greater force than the rear. The rear brake is not adjusted to avoid slipping and spinning tops or instability when braking. With respect to the front wheels are bicycle wheels 20 inches and 26 on the rear wheel. The brake discs used in the three wheels are 160mm in diameter.

System Electric

MPPT

Module was designed MPPT final after setting a test module; the module has an efficiency of 95% and manages a 1000w power. The MPPT control system connects to external devices via CAN 2.0 Network

MPPT Tests

For tests of MPPT was based on the definition of the power circuit defined in Figure 1. The input of the system corresponds to the arrangement of panels with a level of 45V, the load of the system corresponds to an array of batteries with a 72V level, for initial testing were used lead acid batteries.

 

System control Power MPPT.

 

System test MPPT.

 

File Schematic MPPT MPPT.pdf

File PCB MPPT PCBMPPT.pdf

Bill of material

Quantity

Comment

Description

Value

2

32.768KHZ, 32.768KHZ-1, Pow, Pows

32.768KHZ, 32.768KHZ-1, Pow, Pows

 

2

BOOTST, JTAG

BOOTST, JTAG

 

18

Cap

Capacitor

4.7nF, 10uF, 100nF, 270pF

3

C2

Capacitor

100uF, 330uF, 470uF

3

Cap

Capacitor

100nF

3

C2

Capacitor

1uF

1

Cap

Capacitor

2.2nF

1

Cap

Capacitor

100nF

4

Cap

Capacitor

12pF

1

Cap

Capacitor

100pF

2

Cap2

Capacitor

330uF

2

Header 10

Header, 10-Pin

 

3

Cap2

Capacitor

1uF

1

30V

Zener Diode

 

1

70V

Zener Diode

 

4

15ETH06-1

Hyperfast Rectifier

 

3

1N4149

Computer Diode

 

2

1N4007

1 Amp General Purpose Rectifier

 

1

Diode 1N4007

1 Amp General Purpose Rectifier

 

2

Fuse 2

Fuse

 

1

Fuse 3

Fuse

 

1

Component_1

 

 

1

Header 14X2A

Header, 14-Pin, Dual row

 

4

Header 20X2

Header, 20-Pin, Dual row

 

2

Header 3

Header, 3-Pin

 

1

Header 8X2

Header, 8-Pin, Dual row

 

2

Inductor Iron

Magnetic-Core Inductor

13uH, 550uH

1

LED2

Typical RED, GREEN, YELLOW, AMBER GaAs LED

 

3

LED1

Typical RED GaAs LED

 

3

Header 3

LM7805, LM7812

 

1

Inductor Iron

Magnetic-Core Inductor

1mH

3

IRF840

N-Channel MOSFET

 

1

MSP430BT5190

MSP430BT5190

 

2

Header 2

Header, 2-Pin

 

2

Header 4

Header, 4-Pin

 

1

Header 8X2A

Header, 8-Pin, Dual row

 

1

Header 2

Header, 2-Pin

 

1

PTMA401120N1AD

PTMA401120N1AD

 

4

2N6122

NPN Bipolar Transistor

 

3

Res1

Resistor

1K, 5.6K

1

Res1

Resistor

1K

6

Res1

Resistor

1K, 30

1

Res2

Resistor

330

4

Res1

Resistor

33, 47K

1

TL1963a

TL1963a

 

2

TXS0108E

 

 

5

Header 8

Header, 8-Pin

 

Battery charge gauge

An electronic system was designed to measure the 72V bus battery / 8 A and temperature of the battery bank. Electronic boards have the ability to transfer information (battery temperature, current charge level and battery bank) via CAN protocol 2.0.

Schematic File MBateria.pdf

PCB File PCB-MBateria.pdf

Bill of Material

Quantity

Comment

Description

Value

2

10MHz, 12MHz

Header, 2-Pin

 

1

ADS7818

 

 

1

C2

Capacitor

10uF

9

C3, C14, C15, C55, C56, C57, C60, C92, C93

Capacitor

1uF, 22pF, 100nF

3

C6, C8, C9

Capacitor

100uF, 330uF, 470uF

6

C23, C34, C80, C81, C82, C84

Capacitor

1uF, 100nF

2

C24, C35

Capacitor

1uF

3

C30, C31, C37

Polarized Capacitor (Surface Mount)

10nF, 100pF

10

C33, C36, C38, C39, C50, C51, C70, C71, C72, C73

Capacitor

2.2nF, 100nF, 270pF

2

C61, C65

Capacitor

0.1uF

10

C62, C63, C66, C67, C100, C101, C108, C109, C110, C111

Capacitor

10uF

2

C89, C90

Capacitor

22pF

1

CAN

Header, 8-Pin, Dual row

 

5

CANC, PBat, SLEN, Vent, Vent1

Header, 4-Pin

 

38

Cs1, Cs2, Cs3, Cs4, Cs5, Cs6, Cs7, Cs8, Cs9, Cs10, Cs11, Cs12, Cs13, Cs14, Cs15, Cs16, Cs17, Cs18, Cs19, Cs20, Cs21, Cs22, Cs23, Cs24, Cs25, Cs26, Cs27, Cs28, Cs29, Cs30, Cs31, Cs40, Cs41, Cs42, Cs43, Cs104, Cs105, Cs106

Capacitor

0.1uF, 1uF

1

D1

Zener Diode

 

4

D11, D12, D14, D15

1 Amp General Purpose Rectifier

 

2

DCP021212DP

DCP021212DP

 

1

F1

Fuse

 

2

ICL7660

 

 

6

ISO124U

ISO124U

 

1

JP3

Header, 3-Pin

 

1

JTAG

Header, 7-Pin, Dual row

 

1

LB5

Magnetic-Core Inductor

10mH

1

Led1-1

Typical RED, GREEN, YELLOW, AMBER GaAs LED

 

2

Led6, Leds

Typical RED GaAs LED

 

2

LM7805

LM7805

 

12

Ls1, Ls2, Ls3, Ls4, Ls5, Ls6, Ls7, Ls8, Ls9, Ls10, Ls11, Ls12

Magnetic-Core Inductor

1mH

1

MCP2510

 

 

1

MSP430BT5190IPZ

MSP430BT5190IPZ

 

2

OPA2830, OPA2830-1

Header, 4-Pin, Dual row

 

5

P2, Pc, Pc2, Pl, VFan

Header, 2-Pin

 

2

PADC, PADC1

Header, 6-Pin

 

8

PCON1, PCON1-1, PCON2, PCON2-2, PCON3, PCON3-1, PFv, PFv-1

Header, 4-Pin

 

2

PCON4, PCON4-1

Header, 6-Pin

 

1

PTMA401120N1AD

PTMA401120N1AD

 

2

Q1, Q2

NPN Bipolar Transistor

 

1

Qm

N-Channel MOSFET

 

2

R1, R62

Resistor

120, 330

2

R3, R4

Resistor

1K, 5.6K

1

R20

Resistor

47K

11

R21, R56, R57, R58, R59, R64, R65, R66, R70, R72, R73

Resistor

1K, 2.2K, 10K, 10M

19

R30, R31, R32, R33, R35, R36, R37, Rs1, Rs2, Rs3, Rs4, Rs5, Rs6, Rs7, Rs8, Rs9, Rs10, Rs11, Rs12

Resistor

1K, 3.3K, 18K, 33K, 51, 470

1

R34

Resistor

2.2

1

R40

Potentiometer

10K

4

R46, Rs20, Rs21, Rs22

Resistor

2K, 5, 47K

6

R60, R61, R63, R74, R75, R76

Resistor

1M, 500K

1

SN65HVD251

Header, 4-Pin, Dual row

 

1

SN74LV4051ADR

SN74LV4051ADR

 

1

TC646V

 

 

1

TL1963ADCQR

TL1963ADCQR

 

2

TXS0108EPWR

TXS0108EPWR

 

1

VBAT

Header, 6-Pin, Dual row

 

Tarjetas de Panel Solar

For the measurement of the temperature of the panels I am used as sensorial TMP423 (the measured data transfer is going to be by I2C to the MCU), with which point of temperature by each goes away to measure 4, altogether they are going away to use 10, consequently they are going away to take 40 measurements from temperature. The measurement data are going to be transmitted by the network ZigBee (eZ430-RF2480) Level of Voltage 5V 3.3V +12V 70V 8V.

Schematic target Measurement Solar Panel

 

Schematic connection TMP423 I2C to MSP430

Bill of materials

Quantity

Comment

Description

Value

4

C2

Capacitor

100uF, 470uF

2

Cap2

Capacitor

1uF, 100nF

5

Cap

Capacitor

10uF, 100nF

40

C2

Capacitor

100nF, 100pF

1

Cap

Capacitor

100nF

1

SN65HVD251P

IC CAN TXRX 5V 8-DIP

 

1

Header 4

Header, 4-Pin

 

1

CCZACC06

eZ430-RF2480

 

1

70V

Zener Diode

 

1

Fuse 2

Fuse

 

1

HC12

Header, 20-Pin, Dual row

 

10

Header 9

Header, 9-Pin

 

1

LED2

Typical RED, GREEN, YELLOW, AMBER GaAs LED

 

2

Header 2

Header, 2-Pin

 

1

Header 2

Header, 2-Pin

 

1

PTMA401120N1AD

PTMA401120N1AD

 

2

2N6122

NPN Bipolar Transistor

 

2

Res1

Resistor

1K, 5.6K

1

Res2

Resistor

330

20

Res1

Resistor

10k, 50

1

Res2

Resistor

120

1

TLV1117-33CDCYR

IC LDO REG 800mA 3.3V SOT223-4

 

10

TMP423AIDCN

±1°C Remote and Local TEMPERATURE SENSOR SOT23-8

 

1

TXS0108EPWRG4

8-BIT BIDIRECTIONAL VOLTAGE-LEVEL TRANSLATOR 20-TSSOP

 

1

PCA9548APWR

 

 

1

PCA9543ADR

 

 

1

PTMA401120N1AD

 

 

1

LM2931-5AQKC

3-Terminal Positive Voltage Regulator

 

 Schematic

File Panel.pdf    (Schematic target telemetric)

PCB

File PCB-Panel.pdf           (PCB target telemetric)

Control Steering Wheel

The system of the steering wheel is and ordered to show the data of the system the pilot, the communication of the steering wheel with the system is by means of the network ZigBee (eZ430-RF2480). The system of the steering wheel has including a GPS and reader of MMC-SD, besides the controls that are driven by the steering wheel. Level of Voltage 5V 3.3V

 

Schematic Control Steering Wheel

 

Schematic File Volante.pdf

PCB  File PCB-Volante.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

Bill of materials

Quantity

Comment

Description

Value

3

32.768KHZ

Header, 2-Pin

 

6

C1, C2, C41, C50, C58, C63

Capacitor

4.7nF, 10uF, 100nF

4

C51, C52, C53, C54

Capacitor

12pF

1

CCZACC06

CCZACC06

 

4

cl1, cl2, cl3, cl4

C SMD

100nF

1

GPS

GPS

 

4

JM1, JM2, JM3, JM4

Header, 20-Pin

 

2

Lm7805

Header, 3-Pin

 

1

JTAG

Header, 7-Pin, Dual row

 

1

LCD 20X4

Header, 14-Pin

 

1

Led1-1

Typical RED, GREEN, YELLOW, AMBER GaAs LED

 

1

MSP430BT5190

 

 

1

R30

Resistor

330

1

Rcontrast

Potentiometer

1K

1

MSP430F5438AIPZ

MSP430F5438AIPZ

 

2

TXS0108EPWR

TXS0108EPWR

 

 

 

 

 

 

Target Acquisition data

This card has the ability to capture signals from different sensors on the vehicle to be stored, to be transferred to the telemetry module. This card CAN control is the Master who transfers command signals to capture information from the different instrument modules from the vehicle. This card features ZigBee module for data communication panel module solar instrumentation card to then be sent to the telemetry card.

 

Schematic File Main.pdf

PCB  File PCB-Main.pdf

Bill of material

Quantity

Comment

Description

Value

4

32.768KHZ

32.768KHZ

 

1

ADS7955

ADS7955

 

2

Header 7X2

BOOTST, JTAG

 

5

Cap

C1, C39, C48, C56, C60

100nF

38

Cap

C2, C32, C33, C34, C36, C37, C41, C42, C49, C50, C58, C61, C63, C79, C80, C89, C90, C91, C92, C93, C94, C95, C96, C97, C100, C101, C110, C111, C112, C113, C114, C115, C116, C117, C118, C119, C120, C121

4.7nF, 10uF, 100nF, 270pF

1

Cap

C40

2.2nF

1

Cap

C47

100nF

4

Cap

C51, C52, C53, C54

12pF

2

Header 8X2

CAN, CAN1

 

1

CCZACC06

CCZACC06

 

4

Header 20

JM1, JM2, JM3, JM4

 

1

Header 3

JP1

 

1

Header 3

JP3

 

1

LED2

Led1-1

 

1

Header 8X2A

MAX3221

 

1

MSP430BT5190IPZ

MSP430BT5190IPZ

 

2

Header 9

Output, PL2

 

4

Header 6

PADC, PADC1, PADC2, PADC3

 

1

D Connector 9

PC

 

1

Header 14

PL1

 

1

Header 8X2A

Pm1

 

1

Header 2

Preset

 

1

Res2

R30

330

21

Res1

R41, R90, R91, R92, R93, R94, R95, R96, R97, R100, R101, R102, R103, R104, R105, R106, R107, R108, R109, R110, R111

33, 47K

1

REF5025AIDG4

REF5025AIDG4

 

1

TL1963ADCQR

TL1963ADCQR

 

2

TXS0108EPWR

TXS0108EPWR

 

 

 

Telemetry Card

For the telemetry system was designed a module radio frequency of 915 MHz The system captures data transferred over the CAN protocol 2.0. For the telemetry system was designed a master card 2 which is located in the vehicle and another for receiving external data. The data received will be displayed in LabView to be stored.

Target Telemetry CC1101

 

 

Schematic target telemetric

 

This stage this conformed by a Chipset CC1101 configured with transition receives in the frequency 915 MHz, modulate 2-FSK. This is the one in charge to send via RF data measured by the sensors of the vehicle

Schematic target interfaces Telemetric-PC

 

 

 

Schematic

File Telemetria.pdf          (Schematic target telemetric)

PCB

File PCB-Telemetria.pdf                (PCB target telemetric)

Schematic

File InterPC.pdf(Schematic target interfaces Telemetric-PC)

PCB

File PCB-Interm.pdf        (PCB target interfaces Telemetric-PC)

 

Bill of material Telemetric.

Quantity

Comment

Description

Value

1

26MHz

Header, 2-Pin, Dual row

 

3

32.768KHZ, 32.768KHZ-1, Pl

Header, 2-Pin

 

4

AFS915S2, AFS915S3, AS179, AS179_1

Header, 3-Pin, Dual row

 

1

SMB

SMB Straight Connector

 

2

BOOTST, JTAG

BOOTST, JTAG

 

5

Cap

Capacitor

100nF

7

Cap

Capacitor

4.7nF, 10uF, 100nF

22

Cap

Capacitor

0.01uF, 1.2pF, 1.8pF, 1pF, 2.2pF, 2.7pF, 2pF, 22pF, 27pF, 47pF, 100nF, 100pF

1

Cap

Capacitor

2.2nF

1

Cap

Capacitor

100nF

4

Cap

Capacitor

12pF

2

Header 8X2

Header, 8-Pin, Dual row

 

1

CC1101

CC1101

 

3

Header 9

Header, 9-Pin

 

3

Header 20

Header, 20-Pin

 

1

Header 8

Header, 8-Pin

 

2

Header 3

Header, 3-Pin

 

1

Header 3

Header, 3-Pin

 

9

Inductor

Inductor

1.8nH, 6.8nH, 10nH, 15nH, 18nH

1

LED2

Typical RED, GREEN, YELLOW, AMBER GaAs LED

 

1

MBC13916

MBC13916

 

1

MSP430BT5190IPZ

MSP430BT5190IPZ

 

1

Header 8X2A

Header, 8-Pin, Dual row

 

1

Header 2

Header, 2-Pin

 

1

MOSFET-N

N-Channel MOSFET

 

2

Res2

Resistor

10k, 56k

1

Res2

Resistor

330

1

Res1

Resistor

47K

1

TL1963ADCQR

TL1963ADCQR

 

2

TXS0108EPWR

TXS0108EPWR

 

 

Bill of material target interfaces Telemetric-PC.

Quantity

Comment

Description

Value

3

Header 2

Header, 2-Pin

 

2

Header 7X2

Header, 7-Pin, Dual row

 

5

Cap

Capacitor

100nF

12

Cap

Capacitor

4.7nF, 10uF, 100nF

1

Cap

Capacitor

2.2nF

1

Cap

Capacitor

100nF

4

Cap

Capacitor

12pF

2

Header 8X2

Header, 8-Pin, Dual row

 

3

Header 20

Header, 20-Pin

 

1

Header 8

Header, 8-Pin

 

2

Header 3

Header, 3-Pin

 

2

Header 9

Header, 9-Pin

 

1

Header 3

Header, 3-Pin

 

1

LED2

Typical RED, GREEN, YELLOW, AMBER GaAs LED

 

1

MAX3221

MAX3221

 

1

MSP430BT5190

MSP430BT5190

 

1

D Connector 9

Receptacle Assembly, 9 Position, Right Angle

 

1

Header 8X2A

Header, 8-Pin, Dual row

 

1

Header 2

Header, 2-Pin

 

1

Res2

Resistor

330

1

Res1

Resistor

47K

1

TL1963ADCQR

TL1963ADCQR

 

2

TXS0108EPWR

TXS0108EPWR

 

 

 

Telemetry Testing

For testing I set a LabView simulation programs using PXI-1042 National for the detection of the signal bandwidth and capture of data transmitted.

Measuring signal strength received National Instrument PXI-1042.

 

 

 

 

 

HMI-Labview

Panel interface

 This interface shows the temperature of the panel, panel current and output power

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battery interface

This interface displays information about the temperature of the battery voltage and current

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motor interface

 

 This interface displays information about the speed of the car and engine information.

 

 

 

 

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