Functional safety standards like International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 615081 and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 262622 require that semiconductor device manufacturers address both systematic and random hardware failures. Systematic failures are managed and mitigated by following rigorous development processes. Random hardware failures must adhere to specified quantitative metrics to meet hardware safety integrity levels (SILs) or automotive SILs (ASILs). Consequently, systematic failures are excluded from the calculation of random hardware failure metrics.
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