The output of the instrumentation amplifier is connected to ads1015, and it is necessary to prevent ads1050 from being damaged by overvoltage. The value of Rx in the figure is appropriate.
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Can you please clarify your question? Are you asking if the additional protection on AIN0 is necessary? If the 5V supply used for the instrumentation amp and the ADS1015 is from the same source, there should not be an issue since the AINx pins can handle up to VDD + 0.3V. It is certainly never a bad idea to add additional protection if you believe there is a chance of one of those rails receiving some potentially damaging transients, so if you can afford the space and the BOM cost it would be a good idea.