Yes, they can. 3.3V CAN transceivers are designed to have their recessive level, dominant and recessive thresholds such that they will correctly transmit and receive messages from either a 5V or a 3.3V CAN transceiver. Within the 3.3V CAN transceiver device familes, there are two recessive levels: 1.85V and 2.3V. The SN65HVD23x family has the 2.3V recessive, designed to work optimally with 5V CAN transceivers. The TCAN33x family will also operate with 5V CAN transceivers well, but they are designed with a 1.85V recessive level to optimize the individual device's EMI performance.