Few words about design: 24Vdc input, 36V 600mA output to LEDs. Sometimes at startup IC explodes - Knocks out a piece of body at the "I" in markings. What could be the problem?
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I can't really read the schematic to be sure, but have you double checked your OVP resistor values? That is where it looks like the damage is like OVP could have exceeded abs max.
I'm also concerned about the grounding because it could be the VP pin. You really want your output cap negative terminal connected very closely to the SEN resistor and diode and you don't want the ground currents flowing beneath the device. You could try to connect a thick wire between those two points and see if that helps. If so the grounding points and planes in your layout will need to be improved.